• Published in Thesis

ODAM: valores modernos e a comfontação com a realidade produtiva

This dissertation instigate upon the premises of the modern and it's impact in the transformation of Portuguese architectonic practice, analyzed through the specificity of the architecture produced by a group of architects of Oporto, the ODAM group, that defended (the) modern ideals, in their individual and collective manifests. The aesthetic and conceptual foundations, constituted by this group, are researched as privileged instrument of Portuguese architectonic production outstanding the new proposal of the modernity in favour of Portuguese humanists and cultural values.

The election of this group stands on the idea of the "collective", as an ideological vehicle of divulgation of the "Modern" principles. Doctrine that is taken as collectives premises, accepted as transforming bases of architecture, in its respond to society, as a cultural phenomena, and that allowed, in the specificity of the group, to reveal the fundamental lines of a production confronted between the dialectic, of modern values and the permanent valences of cultural and productive artesian.

The general structure of the work was organized methodologically in four parts. The part I, is reserved to explain problematic issues within the work and summary the interrogations drown upon the analysis objects: the group ODAM. In the part II, are approached the general "apprehensions" (concerns) of this collective, showed through projects with a "expository" character and constituted/proposed by the group as "absolute models". The part III, deals with the intensive materialization of these concerns within the productive practice of the group, through the study of selected (constructed) works treated as, paradigmatic manners of doing. To conclude in the part IV, with a theoretical reflection, of the global production and a synthetic critical of the most relevant architectonic contributions elaborated by the group, intended to answer the interrogations brought out in the part I.

The centrality of the work lies in the demand of understanding this "specific collective formality", by the sighting of three categories (of actuation) common to the elements of the group, here denominated as patterns, that reveal the main concerns, essential to its characterization and inherent to its conception. The period of study among 1945 to 1955 correspond to the statement of identity of the Group ODAM, constituted in 1947 and with its acme within the exhibition in 1951at the commercial athenaeum of OPorto.

The first pattern contest generically with the (initial) production of modern performs of the Group, where the expressions of the artefacts are more substantial /weighty than their modern contents. In this stage are identified the first polemics works that imply the architects to associate in a vindicate group with common architectonic interests and actuations. At this stage the production reveals a commitment with the conventional values not in favour of a modern radical.

In the second pattern, the formal contents correspond to an aim/ to total trust/ to belong to the ethics ideals of the machine age that is reflected in original uses, innovative programs, in the "rationalization of the function", in a philosophy and methodology of project that it is mirrored in a more abstract form, as a universal code .

In the third pattern, assimilated the modern content, other focal beliefs maybe added. To the pure abstractness of the form is associated the local identity, more humanized and the search of other relegated valences, the "memory" and the "instinct."

These three patterns that are presented as premises, try to confirm through the crossing of the theoretical and project production of the group, its pertinence as new mater of modern values in Portuguese architecture.

To define the importance of the modern contents, discovered in Group ODAM'S statement, as precursors of a specificity, that one today generically designate as the school of Oporto, constitute one of the points of relevance of the work turning understandable and valuable the actual productive processes in Portuguese architecture.

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  • Published in Thesis

Habitar em portugal nos anos 1960: ruptura e antecedentes. Un caminho pelo interior do discurso

The following research entails both an effort to single out any significant changes in Portuguese residential architecture during the 1960's and the ensuing discourses that took place along with it. From 1928 on and in the aftermath of the many political convolutions of the first two decades, Portugal enters a period in its history called Estado Novo, a period in which dictator Oliveira Salazar plays a major role for more than forty years. During this time, the role bestowed to the family, to women and the housing unit itself will suffer changes that were eventually addressed by architects in many different ways.

The first part of this study will engage an analysis of two previous key moments, required for any understanding of the 1960's. The very first of these starts at the turn of the century and revolves both around the figure of architect Raul Lino and the concept of "casa portuguesa". In addition to Raul Lino's inquiries on the subject of the single-family home, manifest in the various of his published works, there will be a chance to engage less known authors as well. At this point, Lino's several apartment building projects will be contrasted with his thoughts on the subject of residential architecture. Among other issues, the observable change of focus from the single-family home to the apartment complex will be taken into account. It will also be questioned whether or not any of the authors engaged in the debate were anything close to holding an anthropological inkling when dealing with this subject. A second cluster of documents addressed in this research comprises several texts from Francisco Keil do Amaral, Fernando Távora and Manuel Vicente Moreira, all forerunner to our period of focus. There will be yet time to introduce the concluding remarks of the working group dedicated to the housing issue at the 1st Congress of Portuguese Architecture (1948).

The second part of this research attempts a thorough insight of the significant changes brought by the 1960's into the subject of residential architecture in Portugal, accomplished in part with the help of a number of texts from architects and other professionals engaged in this issue at the time. The majority of the documents produced in this period show a degree of complexity and thoroughness by no means unrelated with an increased awareness of the problems themselves. Rooted in previous events somehow, it is easily recognized a genuine wish to improve the project stage in order to accommodate the proper articulation of a dignified habitat that can value domestic life. If a concept of anthropocentric architecture can be found in Raul Lino already at the dawn of the century, the apartment block is the prevailing issue by the 1960's. Consequently, the anonymous family is now subjected to quantification. The various distinct fields of theory or criticism and history later on, are now complicit with the project itself. The search for a scientific bearing, as well as more transdiciplinarity, the very idea of Architecture as knowledge, reverberate in a multitude of discourses fashioned perhaps for the first time by architects themselves.

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