New principles and variations in the architecture of Alvar Aalto: Competition entry for the hospital complex of Zagreb, Yugoslavia (1930-1931)

Informação sobre a Tese

  • Autor: Zmijanovic, Vladanka
  • Data: 2016
  • Orientador: Domínguez, Luis Ángel
  • Universidade: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
  • Departamento: Departament de Projectes Arquitectònics
  • Fonte: Tesis Doctorales en Red


The thesis is based on the beginning of the creation of Aalto's architectural language where are observed and analyzed some new principles, one step away from his first projects of "Functionalism", "extracted" from a vast project, little known, neither awarded nor performed: the International Competition entry for the Hospital Complex in Zagreb, Yugoslavia (1930/1931). This hospital complex, is not a hospital building, but a complex project: "Hospital City" which Aalto referred to as "Acropolis", located on the hill, next to the city center, divided into a few parts: The General Hospital (Foundation Hospital), The Clinics of the University of Medicine, Residential and Administrative zone, Service area of the Complex and Sanatorium. The main focus of the thesis is the search for the origins and the meanings in the context of new ideas born in this project and performed in many of Aalto's future projects. We could understand these new ideas as the new principles in Aalto's architectural language in different levels. The thesis contains three main thematic units of this study. The first part contains some context information about Aalto's trajectory and the beginning of the creation of his fundamental principles. The second part briefly describes the context of this International competition. The third part and also the main and broadest part of all this study; consists of the analysis of different parts of the Aalto's competition entry, where their new principles are analyzed in the context of the place and the competition, taken from the functional units of the hospital complex. Throughout the development of all these parts, it can be observed that Aalto incorporates in this project eight important principles that we recognize in almost all his future work. The word "principle here is used in a broader"context of his architectural language, not limited to formal composition study, but about the most complex investigation of the origins and meanings based on Aalto's own thoughts and different theories, connections with ancient cultures, connection with the place, genius loci, metaphorical-symbolic and functional meanings. These principles are named in the analysis of the project as PR.1-8 (complex parts I-VI). Their derivations and variations are parallel analyzed in some known Aalto's works. Knowing this context frame where new significant elements of his architecture are born, we can get to better understand origin, genesis and transformation in other works and other contexts. Many times a critic of a specific work of the author, is based on the one concrete context and use, without knowing the true origin of the analyzed component of his architectural language. The other observation confirmed throughout the study is that Aalto's architectural language was based from the start on the elementary forms as the "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light." (Le Corbusier, 1923) and that many variations of all these initial principles and their infinite combinations between exterior-interior-exterior, they transformed along the Aalto's trajectory, generating "new forms" in the late phase

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